Senior Lecturer in Geography, University College, 1972–94, and School of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1972–91, University of London. The five most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (4.21 m or 13 ft 10 in above sea level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed[b]), 1924 (3.8 m, 12 ft 6 in), 1777 (3.21 m, 10 ft 6 in), 1955 (2.93 m, 9 ft 7 in), and 1975 (2.81 m, 9 ft 3 in). (в текущих основных ценах; млн.рублей)", "Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения (в текущих основных ценах; рублей)", "Отраслевая структура ВРП по видам экономической деятельности (по ОКВЭД) за 2005 год", "Passport of St. Petersburg Industrial Zones", "St. Petersburg Historic Skyline, Russian Federation", "График разводки мостов на Неве в Санкт-Петербурге", "Saint Petersburg Tourist Information Bureau", "National Geographic – Saint Petersburg, Russia", "Saint Petersburg is a Stroll Along A Lovely Canal", "Fodor's Travel – Saint Petersburg, Russia", "Rick Steve's Europe – Saint Petersburg, Russia", "Rostelecom to invest RUB 15 bln in St Petersburg", "Рэпер Моргенштерн снялся в клипе группы Little Big", "Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "St. Petersburg, Russia, "The XIX International "Message To Man" Film Festival", "Datsyuk adds KHL title to Stanley Cup victories", "Первый матч "Зенита" на Крестовском острове посетили 11 тыс. In June 1703 Peter the Great gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh (an emulation of Dutch topographical suffix -burg, which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile) which was subsequently russified.[53][54]. The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. In 2008 the first two berths opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd,[17] meaning "Peter's City", to remove the German words Sankt and Burg. Among other notable parks are the Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany in the Second World War, as well as the Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Arch. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg, Florida was named after St. Petersburg, Russia. The city was formerly known as Petrograd (Петрогр́ад), and later Leningrad (Ленингр́ад). Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012. Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. It is also a seat for the National Library of Russia and a planned location for the Supreme Court of Russia, as well as the home to the headquarters of the Russian Navy, and the Western Military District of the Russian Armed Forces. The 1994 Goodwill Games were also held here. This change officially took effect on 6 September 1991. Applied filters: St Petersburg. In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, which had passed to the USSR from Finland in 1940 under the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December 2013 and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. During the reign of Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre to live in separate apartments. These included the town of Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948). However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. [63][64] For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000[65] and remained lower than the death rate (until 2012[66]); people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years. Regulations forbid construction of tall buildings in the city centre. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace public parks of Saint Petersburg, as well as many other cities. [79] The new port is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project[80] and is due to have seven berths in operation by 2010. Moreover, the bridges and natural canals of the river have earned St. Petersburg the nickname “Venice of the North.” Because of St. Petersburg’s northerly location, the city enjoys the “White Nights,” from June 11 to July 2, when daylight extends to nearly 19 hours—another of St. Petersburg’s most acclaimed characteristics. During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. [127] On the other hand, some media reported that in recent years there had been a notable increase in racially motivated violence, in particular towards foreign students. The project was not completed but is evident in the layout of the streets. ), Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Furthermore, St. Petersburg has strongly Western European-inspired architecture and culture, which is combined with the city's Russian heritage. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year. The controversial M11, also known as the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Motorway, would connect Saint Petersburg and Moscow by a freeway and is expected to be complete before the Russia FIFA World Cup 2018. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM, intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film. [122], After the assassinations of City Property Committee chairman and vice-Governor Mikhail Manevich (1997), State Duma deputy Galina Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov (1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople, Saint Petersburg was dubbed Capital of Crime in the Russian press. Some come for the architecture, some for the history and others to experience the rich culture. [40] This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. The name day of Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of Saint Apostles Peter and Paul. She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August 2011. The very first name of the city was Saint Petersburg, then after first World War it was changed into Petrograd, after Revolution it became Leningrad and just after the collapse of Soviet Union the first name came back. St. Petersburg, Russian Sankt-Peterburg, formerly (1914–24) Petrograd and (1924–91) Leningrad, city and port, extreme northwestern Russia. 1 May] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. [113][needs update] Construction began in 2010 and the first sections of the freeway were finished in 2014 and 2015. This name was given to the city by the Russian writer Daniil Granin and it reflected a sharp drop in the status of St. Petersburg in the Soviet period. The city's long-time basketball team is BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. Saint Petersburg is about 165 km (103 miles) from the border with Finland, connected to it via the M10 highway. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word. [35] In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin's purges. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway. [72] The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in Soviet-era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here.